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In 2019 eduToolkit will focus on Innovative Teaching and Learning to redesign learning activities. ICT can help learners collaborate in ways that were not possible before and allows young people to share their views with an audience that is outside their own school environment.Students need to design their communication for a particular audience and have the opportunity to revise their work based on feedback before it is submitted or finalised.

The 21st Century Learning Design for Educators builds on the ITL research methodology providing a collaborative, practice-based process to help educators transform how they design enriching learning activities for their students. Orchestration and design is crucial when Teaching with Technology to enhance the teaching and learning experience and enable students to acquire 21st century skills.

Mission statement:

To develop a classroom practice based on design thinking and change the terminology in line with “Define”, “Ideate” and “Prototype” to promote an e-learning ecology that support innovative teaching and learning

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In EDUCAUSE Horizon Report 2019 “Higher Education Edition at a Glance” I saw this chart over key trends accelerating Higher Education technology adoption:

They write “Institutions of higher education are rethinking how to meet the academic and social needs of all students seeking credentials or degrees. This shift to student-centered learning requires faculty and academic advisors alike to act as guides and facilitators. Approaches to new degree programs, including the rise in new forms of interdisciplinary studies, indicate that institutions are seeking to provide students with experiences that connect disciplines while rethinking how to capitalize on existing resources” (p7) and “A blockchain-based transcript could include information about courses and degrees, certifications, badges and other microcredentials, co-curricular activities, internships and employment, and other competencies and credentials. Such a record could follow students from one institution to another, serving as verifiable evidence of learning and enabling simpler transfer of credits across institutions” (p29) [link]

Reflection on module 5:

5.1 What are the most important things that you have learnt through your engagement in this course? Why?

-I’m still interested how agency and self-evaluation can be combined with shared responsibility and P2P-review. This is to me a good way for training skills in metacognition and using design thinking to improve the results due to new iterations and empathize with and authentic audience.

5.2 How will your learning influence your practice?

-The “NMC Horizon Report 2017 Higher Education Edition” mention the Domain of One’s Own project that enable faculty, staff, and students
to register their own domain name and freely associate it with a hosted university webspace. This is called next-generation digital learning environments (NGDLE) and my own practice is to use DS106 Assignment Bank.

5.3 What are your thoughts about using technology to enhance learning/teaching in your own context?

-The idea is that the “Mother blog” harvest the feed from the course participants with hash-tags. They then get categorized as assignments or tutorial that become a resource to other participants. The next level is explored by eduFeedr, where you can associate the assignments to a progress in a course.

5.4 What are you going to do as a result of your involvement in ONL? Why?

-I have managed to recreate the community feeling of P2PU in Canvas Network, where the other participants use a rubric to evaluate other members. Since the reward of an Open Badge is transparent, the rest of the community can question the quality of the evaluation.

5.5 What suggestions do you have (activities and/or in general) for development of eLearning in your own teaching or context?

-I like the idea in The state of digital education , where institutions providing the qualification are held responsible for all work done by staff, volunteers and subcontractors, wherever in the world they are. This bridge for a new accreditation system, where the how in learning is more open.

References to Learning Resources:

NMC Horizon Report 2017 Higher Education Edition

The state of digital education (Malta EU 2017). Report from European Commission conference

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Supporting student learning by scaffolding and facilitation is a key area in the provision of a ‘quality’ educational experience in formal settings.
Successful student support has a marked and positive impact on retention, progression, completion rates and overall student satisfaction – this can be even more so for students studying online. Blended learning can become unmanageable if the design build on activities and responsibilities, with no time to reflect on meaning and engage in discourse for shared understanding. The concept ‘Community of Inquiry’ (CoI) argue that an learning experience is both a collaborative and an individually cognitive processing known and stimulate higher-order thinking skills (HOTS). The Chickering and Gamson principles has in “Teaching in blended learning environments: Creating and sustaining communities of inquiry” (Vaughan, Cleveland-Innes, & Garrison, 2013) been adapted to ubiquitous connectivity afforded students as follows:

  1. Plan for the creation of open communication and trust
  2. Plan for critical reflection and discourse
  3. Establish community and cohesion
  4. Establish inquiry dynamics (purposeful inquiry)
  5. Sustain respect and responsibility
  6. Sustain inquiry that moves to resolution
  7. Ensure assessment is congruent with intended processes and outcomes

When learning online the “Five Stage Model” by Gilly Salman (2013) describe e-moderating and technical support as participants building expertise. She wrote “Given technical support, good human intervention from an e-moderator, and appropriate e-tivities to promote action and interaction, nearly all participants will progress through these stages of use of asynchronous networking opportunities” (s.12)

Reflection on module 4:

4.1 Reflect on your current practice and reason about possibilities for development of online and blended learning designs.

-I have often taken the approach of Distributed Cognition (Hutchins) and Connectivist MOOC (Downes). This line of thought also investigate the concept of rhizomatic knowledge and community as curriculum (Cormier). This involves four principles:

  1. Diversity: In learning we encourage students to engage in diverse readings, diverse environments and diverse discussions
  2. Autonomy: The students chart their own course, select their own software and pursue their own learning
  3. Interaction / Connectedness: Knowledge emerges as a result of the connections among the students and educators – and is not limited to transfer from experts to recipients
  4. Openness: There is no barriers between ‘in’ and ‘out’ – students can accommodate the full engaged, the partially engaged, and the rest – creating strong ties and weak ties (i.e. Perceiving connections between fields, ideas and concepts is a core skill)

4.2 Reflect on how you can provide better support and scaffolding to students in online and blended learning environments.

-I’m interested in ‘nugeing’ and micro/nano learning to support students. One emerging trend is to use Bots and AI as scaffolding in an online-environment

4.3 Are there opportunities for further development in this area, that you have identified as a result of your own experiences as a learner in this course and of your engagement in this module?

-I want to look at how the culture of sharing is supported in education and P2P-review. I also like to develop skills among students from pattern-recognition and believe this can be done by discerning salient properties from real-world scenarios or examples.

References to Learning resources:

Salmon, G. (2013). E-tivities: The key to active online learning. Routledge (online)
Vaughan, N. D., Cleveland-Innes, M., & Garrison, D. R. (2013). Teaching in blended learning environments: Creating and sustaining communities of inquiry. Athabasca University Press.

Further Reading:
John Biggs – Constructive Alignment [Homepage] (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Constructive Alignment – Gwenna Moss Centre for Teaching Effectiveness (2013, August 29).  (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Conole, G. (2015). The 7Cs of Learning Design.
ADDIE Model Instructional Strategies, (YouTube, 2011) (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
eLearning Implementation Toolkit Infographic based on ADDIE (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. [Homepage] (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Bates, T. (2016). The 10 Fundamentals of Teaching Online for Faculty and Instructors. Consider Guide 4 and 9 in particular for this topic.
Lister, M (2014)  Trends in the Design of E-Learning and Online Learning. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 10, No. 4, 671-680.
Morrison, D (2015)  Online Learning Insights, Resources for Course Designers [Homepage] (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

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Tribal groups interactions between people are built on strong connections, while communities of practice have weak structures and limited hierarchies. We often associate strong ties with closeness and higher levels of intimacy as well as frequency of interaction. Organization associated with weak ties allow flexibility and diversity to become social capital. The transactional distance, between the creator of the course and the learner who is using it, can be reduced if you create live session or initiate asynchronous discussions around the video tutorial (Dron & Anderson, 2014)

I first got in contact with Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) “CSCL locates learning in meaning negotiation carried out in the social world rather than in individuals’ heads” (Stahl, Koshmann & Suthers, 2006, p. 416). I now find it very interesting to find out more about the difference between ‘Didatic Pedagogy’ and ‘Reflexive Pedagogy’ since this brings together individual metacognition as a process in collaborative intelligence and peer-to-peer learning:

(Cope & Kalantzis, 2017, p14)

Reflection on module 3:

3a) An occasion when real collaborative learning took place, that moved your own thinking forward

I love the concept of MOOC and I have been inspired by the Open Networked Learning (ONL) that brought in PBL-groups where the participants got agency and took shared responsibility.

3b) Your own Personal Learning Networks – how have they developed and how they could be taken further

I’ve been working on a Collaborative Open Online Course (=COOL course) for my upper-secondary students. It was missing the ownership and sharing between participants.

3c) Reflect on how you can use technologies to enable your own networks for learning processes

My “Moonshot project” is to create STEAM-resources in a repository for in-service teachers linked to “Edcamp Sweden”. I tried DS106 Assignment Bank. on my site Enriched Science Projects.

Definition: A moonshot, in a technology context, is an ambitious, exploratory and ground-breaking project undertaken without any expectation of near-term profitability or benefit and also, perhaps, without a full investigation of potential risks and benefits. (link (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.)

References to Learning Resources:

Cope, B., & Kalantzis, M. (Eds.). (2017). e-Learning ecologies: Principles for new learning and assessment. Taylor & Francis.

Dron, J. & Anderson, T. (2014). Teaching crowds: Learning and social media. Athabasca University Press.

Stahl, G., Koschmann, T. D., & Suthers, D. D. (2006). Computer-supported collaborative learning. na.

Further reading:

Brindley, J., Blaschke, L. M. & Walti, C. (2009). Creating effective collaborative learning groups in an online environment. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(3)

Capdeferro, N. & Romero, M. (2012). Are online learners frustrated with collaborative learning experiences? The International review of research in open and distance learning, 13(2), 26-44.

Wenger, E. (2010). Communities of practice and social learning systems: the career of a concept. In Social learning systems and communities of practice (pp. 179-198). Springer London.

Anderson, T. (2008). Teaching in an online learning context. In The theory and practice of online learning (pp. 343-395). Athabasca university press.

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Openness in education and learning is facilitated through open educational resources (OERs) and and open participation in courses. I believe we are also ready for open assessment. Open education is no longer limited by physical and geographical constraints (i.e. ubiquitous) and allow the implementation of methods for informal assessment (i.e. Mozilla Open Badges). This has been suggested as a solution to the problem of costly higher education (Weller & Anderson, 2013). There was also observed a new form of participation of people temporarily ‘sampling’ the course (i.e. ‘drop-outs’) or actively observing (i.e. ‘lurkers’) in open learning environments (Mackness, Waite, Roberts & Lovegrove, 2013).

Reflections on module 2:

2a) What openness means for your own practice

In education OER:s on Youtube has made it possible to create adaptation to students entry-level. I had advanced students listening to professors explaining ‘chemical shift’ in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, while other students still were working on basic examples and tutorials. I have also shared and used material in repositories like ‘Microsoft Educator Community‘ or ‘Google for Education
Transformation Center
‘.

2b) How to find and use openly licensed resources

I started to used WikiEducator and Wikiskola for OER, but are now experimenting with H5P and DS106bank to create an ecology for sharing. I usually recommend Creative Commons search tool called CC-Search.

2c) Advantages and disadvantages of open and closed technologies

My experience of closed technologies involve ‘silos’ and ‘gatekeepers’ that stop open participation. I found this quote from John Kotter “The existence of silos and gatekeepers is not inherently bad: they are a necessary check on how work is delegated, managed, and completed” and this brings my thoughts to institutions and how the economy is structured. He also offers an definition and connect this to ‘gatekeepers’:
“Silos are robust vertical structures that establish and enforce a rigid hierarchy while discouraging or outright banning horizontal structures. They may also be referred to as “stovepipes,” which is an especially appropriate metaphor because the fire burns only at the bottom level, and the smoke only rises up, never down. Silos require gatekeepers who will enforce that only selected ideas make it to higher levels of the public service” (Kotter International, 2011)

This highlights a problem with conformity or sameness when you have a closed environment. Power balance is also a problem when you have hierarchies “The term ‘gate-keeping’ is thus a telling one when applied to the public service: it implies the existence of a gate, or barrier, and the establishment of a person to actively manage that gate to protect or maintain the structures and organizational values and work flows of the institutional community. Examples include a “union versus management” mentality; managers micro-managing and acting like “dictators;” and various “forms of wheeling and dealing” (Morgan, 2006).

2d) Implications of different open course and MOOC formats in relation to your learning experience on this course.

I’ve experienced eXtended Massive Open Online Courses (x-MOOC) with over 10000 participants, where the lecture is delivered by an instructor to the student. In a connectivist Massive Open Online Course (c-MOOC), groups of people learning together. For younger students I found it usefull to create a task-based Massive Open Online Course (t-MOOC), where the aim is to share knowledge and resources with peer students.

References to Learning Resources:

Weller, M., & Anderson, T. (2013). Digital resilience in higher education. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning16(1).

Mackness, J., Waite, M., Roberts, G., & Lovegrove, E. (2013). Learning in a small, task–oriented, connectivist MOOC: Pedagogical issues and implications for higher education. The international review of research in open and distributed learning14(4).

Further reading:

Kotter International. Breaking Down Silos. Forbes, Retrieved June 2014 from <http://www.forbes.com/sites/johnkotter/2011/05/03/breaking-down-silos/>

Morgan, Gareth.  Images of Organization. (London: SAGE Publications, 2006)

Videos:

Creative Commons guide – Overview to CC-licensing by Creative Commons Aotearoa New Zealand

Open education and the future – Short TED-talk by David Wiley

What is a MOOC? – Short explanation by Dave Cormier, one of the people behind the first ever MOOC 

Further readings:

Weller, M. (2014). Battle for Open: How openness won and why it doesn’t feel like victory. London: Ubiquity Press. (Focus on Chapter 4, Open Educational Resources, and Chapter 5, MOOCs.)

Bates, T. (2015). Teaching in a Digital Age: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Focus on Chapter 10, Trends in open education.)

Dos Santos, A., Punie, Y., Munoz, J. (2016). Opening up education. A support framework for higher education institutions. European Commission JRC Science for Policy Report.

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In our society we use devices for online participation, which also generate a digital footprints. Skilled communication and collaboration is required for creation of learning resources and your networking skills transform the experience of digital consumption. What it means to be digitally literate can be represented in the seven elements model delveloped by Joint Information Systems Committee (Jisc 2014):

Reflection on module 1:

a) Who you are as an individual in the digital age and what characterizes your journey so far?

I was bitten by the MOOC-bug in 2008 during an online course called “Connectivism and Connective Knowledge” (CCK08) (read more). When I found “Open Networked Leaning”  (ONL162) in 2016 i liked the FISh-model of Lars Ullin that is similar to Staffan Selanders Learning Design Sequence. This is related to my work since I’m promoting an epistemie dimensionof active meaning making (i.e. from passive knowledge consumer to the learner as producer and discerning knowledge)

b) What this course might mean for your development?

I want to create a course for in-service teacher training that are built on acive learning. My hardest barrier is motivation and online collaboration similar to Digitala Skollyftet.

c) other reflections on module 1 readings and discussions.

In our group we discussed the role of digital natives and immigrants vs. visitors and residents (White & Le Cornu 2011). I consider myself as a digital native, but maybe I’m resident of a different setting to the younger generation (i.e. millennials)

References to Learning Resources:

Jisc. (2014) ‘Developing digital literacies’, [online] Available at: https://www.jisc.ac.uk/guides/developing-digital-literacies

White, D. S., & Le Cornu, A. (2011). Visitors and Residents: A new typology for online engagement. First Monday16(9).

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We have now been divided into groups to start the course with an introduction and activate the first module in Canvas LMS.

The introduction is shared as a page:

Instructions:

“During this module we will together explore important literacies to survive and thrive in the digital age, as well as your experiences of digital consumption, communication, collaboration and creation, as learners and educators. Accessing, filtering, critically evaluating information in vast networks, repositories and digital libraries as well as connecting with individuals and groups via social networks and adapting it for learning and teaching is a complex process. It requires specific skills, attitudes and behaviors which become increasingly more important for individuals and society.”

“We will also discuss online participation and your digital footprints. You will be encouraged to reflect on your digital presence and identity as well as your experience of digital consumption, communication, collaboration and creation.”

“As a starting point for your blog you will reflect on and discuss your own digital presence and identity and your experiences, concerns and challenges.”

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Draft of final post

  • Final reflection from ONL181
    • As I’m finalizing my third iteration of the course Online Networked Learning (ONL181) as co-facilitator, I’m left with questions about how online learning environments stimulate motivation to learn. I think we can benefit from a formalized structure and find it interesting  to draw experience from roles in literature circles:
      • Discussion facilitator – developing a list of questions that the group might discuss about the section of the novel to be discussed for that meeting
      • Commentator –  locating a few significant passages of text that are thought-provoking, funny, interesting, disturbing, or powerful
      • Illustrator – drawing, sketching, or painting a picture, portrait or scene relating to the appropriate section of the novel
      • Connector or Reflector – locating several significant passages in the novel and connecting these passages to real life or characters with other books that they have read
      • Summarizer – help their peers see the overall picture as well as  important events and details
      • Vocabulary Enricher – identify words that are unusual, unknown, or that stand out in some way
      • Travel Tracer – recording where the major shifts in action or location take place in the novel for the reading section
      • Investigator – find background information needs to be found on any topic relating
      • Figurative Language Finder – why the author chose to use those particular words or phrases, and whether or not they were effective
  • What are the most important things that you have learnt through your engagement in the ONL course? Why?
    • Learning-by-doing allow for meta-reflection in designing a course for collaboration and community
    • I also believe that academic maturity is nessesary for skills of academic writing and reflection on research methods and results
    • The key to success is intrinsic motivation and self-determination
    • Participants motivation to learn is based on their desire to meet people with similar expertise and interests in order to share ideas and collaborate
  • How will your learning influence your practice?
    • Motivation is conceptualized as an internal state that arouses, directs, and sustains goal-oriented behavior (Bandura, 2006).
    • provide diverse communication platforms
    • design open assignments that present real-word problems
  • What are your thoughts about using technology to enhance learning/teaching in your own context?
    • Technology allow me to become an orchestrator of learning opportunities, where participants motivation to learn is based on their desire to learn
    • Technology is not a good enabler of group reflection where .
    • chaotic learning environment
    • The groups will explain, discuss and assess the shared topic and then use the created content in the community to critically reflect on questions concerning eLearning related to their own teaching practice.
    • social engagement via small face-to-face groups
    • facilitating communication among learners and the manifestation of thoughts, ideas, and knowledge
    • Studies found that small group discussions stimulated students’ interest in the subject matter and therefore raised their motivation to learn (Dolmans and Schmidt, 2006Gomez et al., 2010).
    • Those who worked alone on the final project asserted relatively low means for motivation to learn, while those who worked in groups of four or five asserted the highest means.
    • These results are interesting since it suggests that communication in small online groups has a contributing impact on participants’ motivation.
    • further research should examine relationships between motivation, language of instruction, and social engagement. … Higher Order thinking skills (HOTS) requires language and conceptual understanding
    • An engineer focus on discerning patterns and regularities in data (i.e. pattern recognition). This involve actively forming our own thoughts through self-exploration and discuss our observations.
  • What are you going to do as a result of your involvement in ONL? Why?
    • efewf
    • eqwfewef
      • career motivation (i.e. their belief that learning will benefit their professional development)
      • Their motivation to learn is based on their desire to staying informed about the latest innovations.
      • They are university students and their motivation to learn is based on their desire to broaden and deepen their curriculum.
      • 22000 views..
      • Collaborative Learning in Digital Learning Environments
  • What suggestions do you have (activities and/or in general) for development of eLearning in your own teaching or context?
    • Motivation is perceived as a reason or a goal a person has for behaving in a given manner in a given situation (Ames, 1992)
    • Coordinator of knowledge and skills where participants motivation to learn is based on their desire to solve real scientific or engineering problems that they have encountered in their work place.
    • Orchestrator of learning opportunities where participants motivation to learn is based on their desire to meet people with similar expertise and interests in order to share ideas and collaborate.
    • Enabler of group reflection where motivation to learn is based on their desire to broaden and deepen their curriculum
    • Decoder of cultures where motivation to learn is based on their desire to contribute to the advancement of their society and country  (Savin-Baden 2014)

References:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131515300828#bib3

https://edu.mau.se/en/course/hp621a

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We easily fall into the groupwork mode from school and divide tasks between us, but this don’t allow collaborative inquiry and collective responsibilitiy. How could a learning community help participants to become part of a learning community and collaborate with their peers?

In my experience the connections between participants is in a star-network dependent on one central node. The groupwork mode allow members to cluster in hubs-and-spouts, but in an distributed-network. The star-network reduces the probability of a network failure by connecting all of the peripheral nodes to a central node, but this node also allow failure for the network.

 

To be continued…

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During Topic 2: Open Learning – Sharing and Openness I looked at some chapters in Teaching in a Digital Age: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning by Tony Bates (2014). He emphasizes decision-making in our volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous world.

 

“Although governments, institutions and learners themselves can do a great deal to ensure success in teaching and learning, in the end the responsibility and to some extent the power to change lies within teachers and instructors themselves. It will be the imagination of teachers inventing new ways of teaching that will eventually result in the kinds of graduates the world will need in the future.” (Bates 2014)

 

My personal interest has been on the affordances of collaborative learning in online environments and I developed a Collaborative Open Online Learning (COOL) course. The course use microcredentials (i.e. open badges) as a way to recognize skills and achievements. Distributed knowledge (instead of a central node in a star network) are stored in Open Educational Resources (OERs), which is blended and re-mixed to student’s local context. My belief is that someone with expert skills can find patterns between and traverse key concepts and knowledge domains (i.e. salient properties of an entity).  He or she can also demonstrate and validate this knowledge in a Community of Practitioners (Brown and Duguid 2002). Notice the focus on knowing-in-practice where practitioners from different contexts learn from each other as they try to address similar real-life problems.

 

An analogy I find helpful is literature circles. They were first implemented in 1982 by Karen Smith, providing a way for students to engage in critical thinking and reflection. Research have found that peer collaboration has a positive effect on student learning and performance as well as improved reading comprehension and content-knowledge (Daniels, 2002).

Compared to a book club a literature circle Includes assessment of fellow group members (i.e. peet-to-peer review) and opportunity to keep track of your own progress though self-assessment. Literature circles offers an alternative to teacher-centered discourse, but it is recommended to agree on checklists or other rubrics to provide structure. Collaborative learning in a digital age allow members to write reflective blog posts and Activity Tracker (which was used in previous iterations of the ONL course).

 

As participants in ONL181 you can probably understand my interest in Open Online Learning. I think we as educators need to focus on assessment and distinction between literacy and fluency!

On the subject of open learning I have used Scalable Learning that is provided for free for individual teachers (here is also experiments with LTI integrations with Canvas LMS)

References:

 

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An explorer attempts to predict the relationship between two points (i.e. regression line). An observer tend to survey from two known points at either end of a fixed baseline (i.e. triangulation). An engineer focus on discerning patterns and regularities in data (i.e. pattern recognition). This involve actively forming our own thoughts through self-exploration and discuss our observations.

 

During our first topic I’ve spent time to rethink the metaphor of a co-facilitator as a Learning Improvement Engineer. In the reading I found “No longer are we just facilitating students so that they can perform (qualification), but we must also ensure that they are being socialised (socialisation) into a ‘way-of-being’ (subjectification) that includes attributes and skills to take risks, to reason critically, to reflect, to be resourceful, and to be autonomous – qualities of lifelong learners – which will allow them to work and live productively in a world of uncertainties” (Kek & Huijser 2015). Looking at Problem-Based Learning for Transformation and Social Reform “facilitators awaken students’ embedded perspectives as well as the values and ideologies located in texts and common practices within their disciplines” (Savin-Baden 2014). The table over Constellations of Problem-Based Learning describes the Form of Facilitation (p. 203) as:

  • Coordinator of knowledge and skills
  • Orchestrator of learning opportunities
  • Enabler of group reflection
  • Decoder of cultures

Investigation: The facilitator provides one important source of scaffolding, but how might technology extend the human facilitator in larger groups?

 

I’m going to take a systematic approach based on a human ecology for learning model (adapted from Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006)